In men, one type of cancer that can develop is prostate cancer, the prostate is a gland that only men have, and that produces part of the semen fluid.
Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate begin to grow out of control. It is one of the most common cancers among men in the United States according to the CDC.
Some of the early symptoms and signs of prostate cancer are:
blood in semen
Problems and pain when urinating
Discomfort when sitting
Trouble getting an erection
It is important to be informed and understand the risk factors that can lead a man to prostate cancer, in order to prevent this disease.
One of the ways to prevent it is to keep it deflated, scientists in 2022 were able to make with nanotechnology a natural compound with herbs that, being so small, the particles have a greater impact on the absorption of natural and effective ancient substances in the prostate called ProstaStream.
The probability of developing prostate cancer increases significantly after the age of 50. In addition, in some cases there may be a hereditary or genetic factor that develops it.
Prostate cancer can be found as a result of screening tests. Types of tests done to determine if you have prostate cancer include a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test or a digital rectal exam (DRE).
Regular prostate cancer screening is recommended and should be done even before any symptoms occur; in this way, if you have cancer, you can receive the appropriate treatment on time.
If the tests come back abnormal, more tests, such as an ultrasound, biopsy, or MRI, may be needed.
Talk to your doctor if you are concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer. A timely test and treatment can make a big difference in your health.
What causes prostate cancer?
Researchers don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer. However, researchers have found some risk factors and have made progress in understanding how these factors might cause prostate gland cells to become cancer cells.
Generally speaking, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell. DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, and controls how our cells work. In general, people resemble their parents because their DNA comes from them. However, DNA affects more than just children’s appearance.
Some genes control when cells grow, when they divide to form new cells, and when they die
Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes.
Genes that normally maintain control of cell growth, repair errors in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes.
Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations (or other types of changes) that keep oncogenes turned on, or turn tumor suppressor genes off. These types of gene changes can cause cells to grow out of control.
DNA changes can be inherited from a parent or acquired during a person’s lifetime.
hereditary genetic mutations
Some gene mutations can be passed from one generation to another (inherited), and are found in all cells of the body.
Inherited genetic changes are thought to play a role in about 10% of prostate cancers. Cancer caused by inherited genes is called hereditary cancer. Several inherited mutated genes have been linked to hereditary prostate cancer, including:
BRCA1 and BRCA2: These tumor suppressor genes normally help repair errors in a cell’s DNA (or cause the cell to die if the error cannot be corrected). Inherited mutations in these genes most commonly cause breast and ovarian cancer in women.
However, changes in these genes (especially BRCA2) are also responsible for a small number of prostate cancers.
CHEK2, ATM, PALB2, and RAD51D: Mutations in these other DNA repair genes may also be responsible for some inherited prostate cancers.
DNA mismatch repair genes (such as MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2): These genes normally help correct errors (mismatches) in DNA that can be made when a cell is preparing to divide into two new cells. (Cells must make a new copy of their DNA each time they divide.)
Men with inherited mutations in one of these genes have a condition known as Lynch syndrome (also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), and are at increased risk of colorectal, prostate, and other cancers.
RNASEL (formerly HPC1): The normal function of this tumor suppressor gene is to help cells die when something is wrong inside them.
Inherited mutations in this gene could allow abnormal cells to live longer than they should, which can lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer.
HOXB13: This gene is important in the development of the prostate gland. Mutations in this gene have been linked to early onset prostate cancer (prostate cancer diagnosed at a young age) which tends to run in some families. Fortunately, this mutation is rare.
Other inherited gene mutations may be responsible for some types of hereditary prostate cancer, and research is being done to find these genes.
Acquired genetic mutations
Some genes mutate during a person’s life, and the mutation is not passed on to children. These changes are detected only in cells that come from the original cell that mutated.
These are called acquired mutations. Most gene mutations linked to prostate cancer do not appear to be inherited, but rather form during a man’s life.
Every time a cell prepares to divide into two new cells, it must copy its DNA. This process is not perfect, and mistakes sometimes occur, leaving defective DNA in the new cell. It is not clear how often these DNA changes are due to random events, nor how often they are influenced by other factors (such as diet, hormone levels, etc.).
In general, the faster prostate cells grow and divide, the more likely mutations will occur. Therefore, anything that speeds up this process can make prostate cancer more likely.
For example, androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, promote prostate cell growth. Having higher levels of androgens may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer in some men.
Some research has found that men with high levels of another hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), are more likely to develop prostate cancer. However, other studies have found no such association. More research is needed to understand these findings.
As noted in Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer, some studies have shown that inflammation in the prostate may be related to prostate cancer. One theory is that inflammation may cause damage to the cell’s DNA, which could help a normal cell become cancerous. More research is still needed on this.
Exposure to radiation or cancer-causing chemicals can cause mutations in the DNA of many organs, but so far these factors have not been shown to be important causes of mutations in prostate cells.